Wednesday, December 23, 2009

The birth of hyderabad

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Founder of Hyderabad
Fifth ruler of Qutb Shahi Dynasty
(Accession 1580 - Death 1612)

The birth of a city

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was the founder of Hyderabad City. In the year 1591, when the Moon was in the constellation of Leo, Jupiter in its own abode and all celestial planets favourably placed, he laid the foundation of a new city which he called Bhagyanagar after his beloved queen ‘Bhagmati’. Bhagmati embraced Islam and took the name Hyder Mahal and consequently Bhagynagar was renamed Hyderabad after her.

City of Love

The fourteen year old crown Sultan of Golconda, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was madly in love with beautiful Hindu courtesan ‘Bhagmati’, a local dancer. Every evening, the Prince of Golconda would ride to the village of Chichlam across Musi river, to meet his beloved, for he couldn’t live without watching her dance, and listening to her soulful voice.

Legend has it that once heavy rains and thunderstorm lashed Golconda and the city was devastated. Flood water of the Musi river destroyed many homes and lives.

Young Sultan of Golconda, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was worried for Bhagmati, so he decided to cross the flooded river to meet her. His Royal guards tried to stop him as it was very dangerous for the young sultan, but in vain. Prince rode to the shore of the Musi river. He coerced his horse to step into the river and as soon as it did, a furious current nearly swept it away. It was a miracle that both survived and reached the other end.

After crossing the Musi river, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah rode towards the Chichlam village; he found many homes and lives were destroyed, he was searching for Bhagmati all the way and was praying for her safety.

Prince of Golconda found Bhagmati alive and felt happy after meeting her. After storm subsided, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah and Bhagmati left for Golconda.

When Sultan Ibrahim, the father of the young Sultan heard this tale of dangerous passion, he was alarmed and forbade Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah from meeting Bhagmati. Young Sultan was miserable without her. Beautiful women from Armenia, Persia, Arab and different parts of India were brought to entertain the prince, but none could attract his attention away from his beloved ‘Bhagmati’.

Sultan Ibrahim found that his son loved only Bhagmati and no one else, no matter how beautiful she was. After seeing so much love for Bhagmati, Sultan Ibrahim constructed the Purana Pul (Old Bridge) – a massive stone bridge across the Musi River, to make it easy for the young Sultan to reach Chichlam to meet his beloved.

The romance of the crown Prince with a dancer evoked great curiosity and controversy in Golconda. The fact that the Bhagmati was a Hindu courtesan and much older than the prince, created quite a uproar in the court. The orthodox society was not ready to accept her as queen of Golconda. After ascending the throne, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah defied all traditions, married Bhagmati, and made her his queen. He re-christened her Hyder Mahal, and named the city Hyderabad in honour of her.

The lustrous Pearl History in hyderabad

The Pearl Culture of Hyderabad
Who hasn't heard of the soft, rounded, lustrous, tear drop pearl of Hyderabad? People form everywhere flock here to possess a few of these pearls. Strange that there is no sea anywhere near the city. Yet it has become almost synonymous with quality pearls. Well, read on the pearl story .....

Hyderabad was a princely state and a very rich one too! The royal patronage ensured flourishing of arts, crafts and cuisine. The affluent lifestyle beckoned many a craftsman from distant parts of the world, especially the Arabian Gulf where the rare original pearls are found in abundance. Hence, Hyderabad became the one-stop-destination for pearls. There is an entire street which only comprises of pearl shops named - Patther Gatti.

The Pearl in Hyderabad Today
Jewelers in the pearl markets of Hyderabad have for centuries combined pearls with the glitter of gold, the richness of rubies and the ecstasy of emeralds. It is indeed amazing and heartwarming to see traditional designs still surviving the march of history in the narrow alleys of the Old City today.

Several styles of ornaments using pearls evolved along with the pearl trade. The 'Satlada' and 'Panchlada Haar' are seven and five stringed necklaces. They are often interspersed with emeralds or onyx beads set in nine carat gold. Earrings such as 'Karanphool' and 'Cholaphool', set with uncut diamonds and pearls, are also very popular among the ladies of the city. The pearl markets of the city also offer unlimited varieties of chokers and lockets. The last few decades have witnessed a gradual influence of western designs on the Hyderabadi pearl market. However, the City of Pearls has retained it's luster...

The Bangle Bazaar

In the land of beautiful women, beautiful poetry, beautiful cuisine and beautiful pearls, add one more to the beautiful string, i.e. the breathtaking bangles. Down the centuries, the lure of bangles still draws millions of women who love to adorn their arms with a dazzling set of Hyderabadi bangles. There are about 450 shops flanking either side of the world famous Charminar with around 2,500 craftsmen molding their magic around your arms.

Chronology of Events and Dates

Dates 1591 Charminar is built by Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah and a new city founded on the south bank of River Musi

1687 Golconda's capture by Aurangazeb ends Qutub Shahi rule. Mughal rule begins in the Deccan.

1713 Nizam-ul-Mulk is appointed Subedar of six subas (provinces) of the Deccan and Faujdar of Karnataka.
11 Oct 1724 Nizam-ul-Mulk defeats Mubarez Khan in the battle of Shakar Kheda in Berar and establishes his supremacy in the Deccan
25 June 1725 Emperor Muhammed Shah confers the title of Asaf Jah on Nizam-ul-Mulk.

1732 Nawab Mir Ahmed Ali Khan, Nasir Jung is married to the daughter of Roshan-ud-Daula Zafar Jung.

1734 Nizam Ali Khan is born

1738 Nadir Shah invades India and Nizam-ul-Mulk plays a key role in restoring peace
22 May 1748 Nizam-ul-Mulk dies at the age of 77 and is buried at Khuldabad, near Aurangabad.
25 Dec 1750 Nasar Jung is shot dead by Himayat Khan, the Pathan Nawab of Kurnool

1750 Chowmahalla Palace is built by Salabat Jung
3rd Feb 1751 Muzaffer Jung is killed in a fight with his Pathan dependents and Bussy proclaims the third son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Salabat Jung as the Subedar of the Deccan.
3rd Feb 1751 Salabat Jung is installed as Subedar of Deccan
Dec 1753 The French are assigned the four districts of Mustafanagar, Rajahmundry, Elur and Chicacole (Srikakulam)

1756 The French are driven out of the northern Circars by the British force after the out break of war between England and France.

1759 Salabat Jung concludes a treaty with the British for the grant of Masulipatnam and other districts. French influence comes to an end.
8 July 1762 Nizam Ali Khan assumes the Subedari of the Deccan
7 Sep 1763 Salabat Jung dies

1763 The capital of Deccan is shifted from Aurangabad to Hyderabad during the reign of Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II.
April 1779 The first representative of the British, John Holland is sent to Hyderabad to act as an envoy and later as a president.
25 Mar 1798 The French General Micheal Joachin Raymond dies and is buried at Saroornagar

1798 The Nizam was compelled by the treaty of 1798 to join the British against Tipu Sultan during the fourth Mysore War. The treaty establishes British influence in Hyderabad.
6 Aug 1803 Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II dies.
11 Aug 1803 Sikander Jah Asaf Jah III succeeds as the Subedar of the Deccan
9 May 1804 Arastu Jah dies after serving Hyderabad for almost 3 decades as Minister.
25 July 1804 The construction of Mir-Alam Tank begins. It is completed on 8th June 1806. It is built under the supervision of H Russels of Royal Engineers, Madras regiment.

1806 Secunderabad is named after Sikender Jah Asaf Jah III with Col. Lang established the headquarters of British Subsidiary force after the Treaty of 1798. It was one of the largest British Cantonments in India.

1808 Construction of the Residency is completed.

1812 Raja Chandulal along Hungry Russell establishes a contingent known as the Russell Brigade later known Hyderabad Contingent.
21 May 1829 Sikender Jah dies.
23 May 1829 Naseer-Ud-Daula succeeds as Subedar of the Deccan.

1846 Hyderabad Medical School established with Dr. William MacLean as its first Principal.

1853 Berar Treaty is signed by the Nizam giving the management of the Berar district to the British with an annual revenue of Rs. 50 Lakh.
March 1854 Foundation of Dar-ul-Uloom by Sir Salar Jung-I, with facilities for teaching in Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Telugu, Marathi and English.
16 May 1856 Department of Mint and Stamps is established with Major Henry Rocky as the Mint Master.

1857 Naseer-ud-daula Asaf Jah III dies.
18 May 1857 Afzal-ud-Daula succeeds his father as Subedar of the Deccan.

1858 A new coinage called "Hali Sicca" is introduced with the inscription "Sicca-e-Nizamul-Mulk Asaf Jah Bahadur". Consequently the coin in the name of Mughal Emperor seized to be used in Hyderabad.

1858 Army Department was established and Henry Rocks is made first commander -in-chief of the Nizam's army from 1864 to 1874.
31 Aug 1861 The " Order of star of India" is conferred on Afzal-Ud-Daula, Nizam V.

1867 Government central printing press is established.
6 Jan 1867 Forest Department is established with Byramji Manoji as its first Inspector General.

1868 Basheer Bagh Palace is constructed by Sir Asman Jah.
6 Mar 1869 Mir Mahboob Ali Khan is proclaimed the Nizam, Asaf Jah VI, when he was hardly 2 years 7 months old.
26 Feb 1869 First adhesive postage stamp is issued in Hyderabad.

1869 Nizam's State Railway is established.
12 Dec 1872 To inform public about time, Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad organizes cannon fire at 4.30 AM, 12 Noon and 8 PM.
8 Oct 1874 Nizam State Railway is completed and opened to traffic.

1874 Department of Government Gardens is established with G. Cornish as its first head.
!8 Nov 1876 "SATI" or burning of Hindu widows is prohibited in the state and in this connection posters are printed.

1876 Foundation of Chaderghat High School.

1877-78 Foundation of the Madrasa-E-Aliya at Rambold's Koti at Chaderghat by Salar Jung I.

1879 Horse Racing starts at Malakpet.

1880 Postal Department is established with Shah Sawar Jung as its chief.
8th Feb 1883 Mir Turab Ali Khan Salar Jung I dies.

1884 Foundation of Falaknuma Palace is laid on 3rd March 1884 by Sir Viqar-Ul-Umara. Construction completed in 1893.

1884 Official language of the state is changed from Persian to Urdu.

1884 Directorate General of Police and Jail Department is established.
4 June 1889 Mir Yusuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III is born in Poona.
4 Dec 1889 Clocks are fixed on four sides of the Charminar.

1890 Palmoor is named after Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Nizam VI as Mahboobnagar.

1890 Asafia Library is established.

1892 Lord And Lady Lansdowne visits Hyderabad.
Jan 1893 Arch Duke France Ferdinand of Austria visits Hyderabad.

1892 Diarat-Ul-Maarif is founded.

1893 The Nizam announces constitutional reforms through an order called Qaniunche-i-mubarak.
4 Nov 1895 Syed Hussain Bilgrami (Imad-ul-Mulk) appointed as tutor to Mir Osman Ali Khan (Nizam VII).
15 Nov 1895 Lord and Lady Elgin visit Hyderabad.
20 Aug 1897 Sir Ronald Ross discovers the parasite of Malaria in a dissected Anopheles mosquito at Begumpet.

1899 Nizam VI along with Mir Osman Ali Khan visits Calcutta.

1902 Lord and Lady Curzon visit Hyderabad.
25 Aug 1905 Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Nizam VI lays the foundation of Town Hall in Public Gardens on his 40th birthday (now Legislative Assembly Building). It is finished in 1913.
14 Feb 1905 The Victoria Memorial Orphanage is established.
16 Apr 1906 The wedding of Nizam VII is celebrated at Eden Garden

1907 The Mahboobia Girls ' is founded
22nd feb 1907 Mir Himayat Ali Khan (Azam Jah) is born.
2 Jan 1908 Mir Shujat Ali Khan (Moazzam Jah) is born
28 Sep 1908 Hyderabad witnesses disastrous floods in the river Musi.

1908 The Nizamia Observatory is established.

1910 Hyderabad electricity department is established and R.L.Gamlen is appointed its first chief.
29 Aug 1911 Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Nizam VI dies.
29 Aug 1911 Mir Osman Ali Khan is proclaimed as Nizam VII but formal Durbar is held on 12 Sep 1911

1913 Department of Agriculture (Ziraat) is established with John Henry as its head.

1914 Archaeological Department is established.
15 Sep 1915 Construction of High Court begins and is completed on 31st March, 1919.

1917 Osmania University is established.
6 Sep 1917 Bureau of Translation and Compilation is established with Abdul Haq as its head.

1917-18 First Matriculation examination of Osmania University is held
7 Nov 1919 Nizam VII introduces New Constitution of the Govt. with an Executive Council

1920 The Construction of Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar is completed in 1920 and 1927 respectively.

1921 The Judiciary is separated from the Executive.
25 Jan 1922 Prince of Wales visits Hyderabad with Lord Louis Mountbatten as one of his A.D.C.s

1923 Nizam VII celebrates the 200th anniversary of establishment of the Asaf Jahi dynasty.

1923 Jagirdas College is established. (Later converted into Hyderabad Public School)

1924 Nizam Sagar project is started and completed in 1931.
28 sep 1925 Nawab Imad-ul-Mulk receives the first honorary degree of L.L.D from Osmania University.

1926 Osmania Medical College is opened.

1926 The first B.A. examination of the Osmania University is held

1928 District Water Works department is established with Md. Ahmed Mirza as its chief

1929 Industrial Trust Fund is created with Rupees 1 Crore to promote local industries.
12 Nov 1931 Azam Jah and Moazzam Jah are married at Nice (France) to Princess Durru Shehvar, Daughter of ex. Sultan Abdul Majeed Khan, Caliph of Muslims and Princess Niloufer (niece of ex. Sultan) respectively

1931 Osmania University building project is started with Zain Yar Jung as its Chief Architect.
6 Oct 1933 Mir Barkat Ali Khan (Mukarram Jah) is born (grandson of the Seventh Nizam)
14 June 1934 British Govt. restores to the Nizam part of Hyderabad city which for century was known as Residency Bazaar (Now known as Sultan Bazaar).
July 1934 Laying of the foundation stone of Osmania University buildings at Adikmet by His Exalted Highness the Nizam VII

1935 Construction of Moazzam Jahi Market is completed.

1935 Broadcasting Department is established under Nawab Ali Yawar Jung

1935 The Nizam donates Rs.10 lakh to the Aligarh Muslim University.

1936 Hyderabad State Aero Club, Begumpet is established

1936 Prince Azam Jah is given the title of Prince of Berar and a grand function is held at Chowmohalla.
13 Feb 1937 Nizam VII celebrates Silver Jubilee of his reign
6 Dec 1945 Nizam VII issues commemorative stamp to celebrate the victory of the allies.
4 Aug 1947 Charles Gordon Herbert, last British Resident, leaves Hyderabad.
29 Nov 1947 Standstill Agreement signed with the Government of India.
13 Sep 1948 The Indian Army begins "Police Action" against Hyderabad.
17 Sep 1948 The State Ministry resigns.
17 Sep 1948 End of the Asaf Jahi era and imposition of military rule, followed by merger of Hyderabad into the Indian Union.
2 Mar 1949 Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, Salar Jung III, dies a bachelor.
26 Mar 1950 Mir Osman Ali Khan Nizam VII is made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State and remains so up to October, 1956
17 Feb 1953 Clocks presented by his Exalted Highness the Nizam VII in commemoration of his visit to the cathedral at Midnight mass on Christmas Eve 1952- All Saints Church.
24 Feb 1967 Mir Osman Ali Khan, Nizam VII dies.

1976 Birla Mandir is constructed by the Birla Trust adjacent to Naubat Pahad

1988 First five-star deluxe hotel Krishna Oberoi is opened in Hyderabad.

The Qutub Shahi Dynasty

A brief History of the Qutub Shahi dynasty

In 1463, disturbances broke out in the Telangana area of the Bahamani kingdom of Deccan. Sultan Quli Qutbul Mulk, a Turk who was a high ranking military officer under Muhammad Shah Bahamani, was sent to quell the trouble. He was successful and was rewarded by being made the Subedar of Telangana in 1495, with Golconda as his head- quarters. Subsequently, with the disintegration of the Bahamani Kingdom in the early 16th century, Sultan Quli assumed virtual independence. Thus he founded the Qutub Shahi dynasty that lasted from 1518 right up to 1687 when Aurangzeb's armies swept the Deccan.

This dynasty spanned 171 years in the history of South India. The eight kings of this royal line have left a firm impression of their strong personalities upon the land and its people.
The Qutub Shahi rulers were great builders and patrons of learning. They not only patronized the Persian culture but also the regional culture of the Deccan, symbolized by the Telugu language and the newly developed Deccani idiom.

Qutub Shah 1 : SULTAN QULI QUTBUL MULK (1518 - 1543)
The founder of the Qutub Shahi kingdom did much to strengthen and improve the capital Golconda. He beautified his fortress capital with mosques, palaces and gardens. On the foundations of the old mud fort Sultan Quli built a massive citadel. This city called Muhammad Nagar, soon grew rapidly and earned fame as one of the leading cities of the east, well known for its trade in diamonds and precious stones.
Sultan Quli's subjects thought highly of him and he governed kindly and well. But at the age of 99, the king died at the hands of his own son Jamsheed Quli.

Qutub Shah 2 : JAMSHEED QULI QUTUB SHAH (1543 - 1550)
Jamsheed, the third son, took over the reins of government with blood stained hands. His seven years reign was marked by the people's resentment over his patricide. However, Jamsheed Quli was educated and loved poetry. He died in 1550 of on incurable disease.

Qutub Shah 3 : IBRAHIM QULI QUTUB SHAH (1550 -- 1580)
The youngest son of Sultan Quli Qutub Shah, Ibrahim, lived in exile as an honored quest of the Raja of Vijayanagar. It was during this sojourn that he learnt to love Telugu and speak it almost as his second mother tongue. When he ascended the throne, Ibrahim patronized and encouraged the learning and writing of Telugu as few Muslim or non-Muslim rulers had done before him. Poets from all over the Deccan converged at Ibrahim's court.
During his reign, Golconda was further strengthened. Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah invited his nobles to construct buildings within its walls, Mosques, Schools, Alms houses, and the Dam at Hussain Sagar, Budwel and Ibrahimpatnam were all to his credit. Besides, Ibrahim was noted for his able administration.

Qutub Shah 4 : MUHAMMAD QULI QUTUB SHAH (1580 -- 1612)
It was in the long, peaceful and prosperous reign of the fifth king Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah that the Qutub Shahi dynasty reached its zenith.
Muhammad Quli was crowned king when only 15 years of age. He is best remembered as the great planner and founder of the city of Hyderabad. According to popular legend, the king was enamored of a dancer called Bhagmati, belonging to a small village of Chichelam where the famous Charminar now stands. He found Bhagnagar to perpetuate his love for her, the name of the city was accordingly changed by the king to HYDERABAD.
Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, like Ibrahim, patronized and encouraged the Telugu language as much as he did Arabic and Persian. He was himself an accomplished poet in Telugu and fostered local traditions and rituals. He was also the creator of the first Deccani poetry.
Muhammad Quli was hardly 48 when he died in 1612 after a fairy long reign of 32 years. He was a humane and just king, besides being a great builder and man of letters. Hayath Bakshi Begum was his only daughter who was married to his nephew and successor, Sultan Muhammad Qutub Shah.

Qutub Shah 6 : SULTAN MUHAMMAD QUTUB SHAH (1612 -- 1626)
The nephew and son-in-law of Muhammad Quli, Sultan Muhammad ascended the throne as the sixth Qutub Shah. A well versed scholar, he had a deeply religious temperament and was a connoisseur of good books. The Qutub Shahi chronicles were completed during his reign. He further contributed to the architectural achievements of the Qutub Shahi dynasty. The foundation of the principal mosque Mecca Masjid was laid during his reign in 1617. He also began the construction of the building of Sultan Nagar. These projects were however not completed in his lifetime.

Qutub Shah 6 : ABDULLAH QUTUB SHAH (1626-1672)
Son of Sultan Muhammad, Abdullah ascended the throne at the age of 12, his mother administering the kingdom till he attained maturity. He lived a life of pleasure and ease. Though the Kingdom was extended during his rule, it came under Mughal pressure in 1636. Golconda was attacked in 1656 and as a result, heavy indemnity had to be paid. He died on 1st May, 1672.

Qutub Shah 7 : ABUL HASAN TANA SHAH (1672 -- 1699)
Abul Hasan, also known as Tana Shah, was Abdullah Qutub Shah's son-in-law. He proved an able ruler and a staunch defender in the face of the Mughal might. He is remembered as a benign and tolerant king who placed his people's prosperity and well-being above everything else.
Tana Shah was the last king of Golconda. During his rule, the Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb seized the fortress of Golconda for a period of 8 continuous months. In 1687, the Mughals finally stormed the fortress after the gates were opened by a traitor. Abul Hasan was taken prisoner. He was held captive first at Bidar and then at Daulatabad (Aurangabad) where he died in prison after 12 years of captivity. Jan Sapar Khan, one of the nobles of Aurangazeb, accompanied Abul Hasan up to Daulatabad. He was later made the governor of the Deccan under the kingdom of Aurangazeb.

History of Nizams


A Brief History of the Asif Jahi ( Nizams ) Dynasty

After the illustrious era of the Qutub Shahis, the city of Hyderabad came under the rule of the mighty Mughal Aurangazeb. Mir Qamaruddin, the son of an able officer of Aurangazeb was a favorite of the emperor. He served as a minister under the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and was conferred with the title of Asif Jah. Consequently he rose to the post of the Viceroy of Deccan while still very young. In due course, he wielded such undisputed power that the enraged Aurangazeb ordered his assassination. The task was entrusted to Mobariz Khan, the local governor of Hyderabad. But this was not to happen. The attempt backfired and Mobariz Khan was killed in A.D. 1724.

Mir Qamaruddin assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk and conducted himself as a independent prince. This led to the establishment of the Asif Jahi dynasty, named after the title of it's founder.

The Asif Jahi dynasty spanned seven generations from A.D. 1724 to 1948, a period much longer than the preceding Qutub Shahis. The state covered an extensive 95,337 sq. miles - An area larger than Mysore or Gwalior and the size of Nepal and Kashmir put together! With the diversity of languages and peoples, sheer size and culture Hyderabad gained a nationwide importance under this dynasty. Historians however, are quick to mention that the Nizams could not parallel the contributions made to the state by the Qutb Shahis.

Nizam 1 : MIR QAMARUDDIN (1671-1748)
Born on 11th August 1691, Mir Qamaruddin was a courageous warrior and extremely loyal to the Mughal emperor. Aurangazeb gave him the name Qamaruddin. At the age of six he came to the court with his father and work awarded the title of "Munsab". The emperor took a special liking to the boy and predicted his future greatness. At the age of 20 he received the title "Chin Qalich Khan" from emperor Aurangazeb and was soon given the governorship of the Bijapur.

Nadir Shah's invasion of Delhi took place in 1738. It was Mir Qamaruddin who intervened and negotiated a successful truce. Impressed with the Nizam-ul-Mulk's ability, the Shah offered the empire of India to him. Mir Qzmzruddin refused, owing allegiance to the Emperor. Such was his loyalty.

Asif Jah passed away in 1948, at the ripe old age of 77. He is remembered as a resolute and able administrator, yet devoted to his family and friends. He laid the firm foundations of the Asif Jahi dynasty in the Deccan.

Nizam 2 : NIZAM ALI KHAN (1734-1803)
The fourth son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam Ali Khan was born on 24th February, 1734. He assumed the Subedari of the Deccan at the age of 28 years and ruled the Deccan for almost 42 years - The longest period among the Nizams. His reign was one of the most important chapters in the history of the Asaf Juhi dynasty. Among his efforts to consolidate the Nizam empire was the shift of the Deccan capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad. He ruled the Deccan at a most critical period. He protected the Deccan from the attack of the Marathas and Tippu Sultan of Mysore by signing a mutual protection treaty with the British.

After a reign that played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Nizam dynasty, Nizam Ali Khan died in 1803 at the age of 69. He was buried at the Mecca Masjid alongside the tomb of his mother Umda Begum.

Nizam 3 : MIR AKBAR ALI KHAN (1768-1829)
This Akbar Ali Khan Sikander Jah was born on 11th Nov 1768 .After the death of the Nizam Ali Khan he became the Subedar Jah was ratified by the emperor Shah Alam Khan and he also conferred all his father's titles on Sikander Jah.

Nizam 4 : MIR FARKUNDA ALI KHAN (1794-1857)
Mir Farkhanda Ali Khan Nusir-ud-Daulu was born in Bidar on 25 th April 1794. He was the eldest son of Sikander Jan and after his father's death he succeeded him on 23 rd may 1829.During the reign of his father a number of British officers were employed on several civil services. Hence on ascending the throne is 1829 one of the first ads of this highness was to request the Governor general ,Lord William Bentick to the European officers.

Nizam 5 : MIR TAHNIATH ALI KHAN (1827-1869)
Mir Tahniath Ali Khan Afzal-ud-daula was born on 11th October 1827 .He was teh eldest son of Nawab Nasir-ud-daula .He ascended the throne on 18th may 1857 and Indian mutiny was stated on 17th July 1857 Rohilas attacked the residency but Sir Salar Jung put down he attack with a firm hand. Similarly trouble was stated in Sholapur but the maharaja of Sholapur was unable to control transferred to the Nizam by the English yielding retained of Rs. 21 lakh per annum but Derar was retained in trust by the British for the purpose specified in the treaty of 1853.

Nizam 6 : MIR MAHBOOB ALI KHAN (1866-1911)
Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan was born on 17th August 186. He was the only son of Nawab Afzal-ud-Daula .When his father died he was two years and seven months old. He was installed as the Munsab by Sir Salar Jung the Great, Nawab Rasheeduddin Khan, Shar-ul-Ummul and the Resident, there functioned as the Reyab. Shar-ul-Ummul passed away on 12th Decemer,1881 and Salar Jung become the sole regent. He was remembered administrator and regent till his death.

Nizam 7 : MIR OSMAN ALI KHAN (1886-1967)
Mir Osman Ali Khan was born in Hyderabad on 5th April, 1886 at Purani Haveli. Since he was the heir-apparent, great attention was paid to his education, and eminent scholars were engaged to teach him English, Urdu, Persian. On 14th April, 1906 he was married to Dulhan Pasha Begum, daughter of Nawab Jahangir Jung, at Eden Bagh at the age 21.

Monday, December 14, 2009

Construction of charminar

Charminar has the signature style of Islamic architecture. This great tribute to aesthetics looks sturdy and solid from a distance but as one moves closer, it emerges as an elegant and romantic edifice proclaiming its architectural eminence in all its detail and dignity. Charminar looks equally spectacular at night when it is illuminated. Apart from being the core of the city’s cultural milieu, it has become a brand name.

Charminar is a beautiful and impressive square monument. Each side measures 20 m, and each of the corners has a tall, pointed minaret. These four gracefully carved minarets soar to a height of 48.7 m above the ground, commanding the landscape for miles around. Each minaret has four stories, marked by a delicately carved ring around the minaret. Unlike the Taj Mahal, Charminar's four fluted minarets of Charminar are built into the main structure. Inside the minarets 149 winding steps guide the visitor to the top floor, the highest point one can reach, which provides a panoramic view of the city.

The actual masjid occupies the top floor of the four-storey structure. Madame Blavatsky reports that each of the floors was meant for a separate branch of learning - before the structure was transformed by the Imperial British administration into a warehouse for opium and liqueurs.
Each side of the structure opens into a plaza through giant arches that overlook four major thoroughfares, which once were royal roads. The arches dwarf other features of the building except the minarets. Each arch is 11 m wide and rises 20 m to the pinnacle from the plinth, which is a large table raised seven or eight feet from the ground with steps that go up to it. Today, the four arches each have a clock, which was installed in 1889. This monument is equally graceful on the inside having intricate designs. The painstaking details result in a graceful and quite elegant look.

A vault that appears from inside like a dome, supports two galleries within the Charminar, one over another, and above those a terrace that serves as a roof, bordered with a stone balcony. The main gallery has 45 covered prayer spaces with a large open space in front to accommodate more people for Friday prayers.

It is said that, during the Mughal Governorship between Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi rule, the south western minaret "fell to pieces" after being struck by lightning, but "was forthwith repaired" at a cost of Rs 60,000.[citation needed] In 1824, the monument was replastered at a cost of Rs 100,000.

The monument overlooks another beautiful and grand masjid called Makkah Masjid. The area surrounding Charminar is also known by same name. A thriving market still lies around the Charminar, attracting people and merchandise of every description. In its heyday, the Charminar market had some 14,000 shops; today the famous markets known as Laad Baazar and Pather Gatti, near the Charminar, are a favourite of both tourists and locals alike for jewellery, especially known for exquisite bangles and pearls respectively.

Hyderabad Tourist Spots

Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh is also a hot destination for travel and tourism. It offers a fascinating panorama of the past and enthralling modernity of the present. It is unique in being one of the most beautiful cities of India owing to the presence of awe inspiring prehistoric rocks and natural lakes, along with a variety of flora and fauna.

Located in the heart of Deccan Plateau, 1760 ft. above the sea level, Hyderabad has a very salubrious climate with hills, tanks, and forests. The city is studded with architectural monuments, museums, gardens and other hot spots. The landmark is the Charminar which is located in the heart of the city. Among other attractions are the Falaknuma Palace and Ramoji Film City.

The “Nawabi’ atmosphere of the city speaks of the 400 year old history of Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi dynasties who had given a new shape to the city by establishing awe inspiring monuments of architectural ambience.

Hyderabad has emerged as an educational destination of the country. One of the India’s oldest universities, the Osmania University is located here which was established in the year 1891. In contemporary days, the city has reached the utmost level of progress in the field of Computers and IT. The entertainment industry has also grown to a considerable level and it has become the heart of Telugu film industry. The largest Film city – Ramoji Film city is located here which attracts millions of visitors from India and abroad to engulf the natural beauty designed in an artificial mode.