Wednesday, December 23, 2009

History of Nizams


A Brief History of the Asif Jahi ( Nizams ) Dynasty

After the illustrious era of the Qutub Shahis, the city of Hyderabad came under the rule of the mighty Mughal Aurangazeb. Mir Qamaruddin, the son of an able officer of Aurangazeb was a favorite of the emperor. He served as a minister under the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and was conferred with the title of Asif Jah. Consequently he rose to the post of the Viceroy of Deccan while still very young. In due course, he wielded such undisputed power that the enraged Aurangazeb ordered his assassination. The task was entrusted to Mobariz Khan, the local governor of Hyderabad. But this was not to happen. The attempt backfired and Mobariz Khan was killed in A.D. 1724.

Mir Qamaruddin assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk and conducted himself as a independent prince. This led to the establishment of the Asif Jahi dynasty, named after the title of it's founder.

The Asif Jahi dynasty spanned seven generations from A.D. 1724 to 1948, a period much longer than the preceding Qutub Shahis. The state covered an extensive 95,337 sq. miles - An area larger than Mysore or Gwalior and the size of Nepal and Kashmir put together! With the diversity of languages and peoples, sheer size and culture Hyderabad gained a nationwide importance under this dynasty. Historians however, are quick to mention that the Nizams could not parallel the contributions made to the state by the Qutb Shahis.

Nizam 1 : MIR QAMARUDDIN (1671-1748)
Born on 11th August 1691, Mir Qamaruddin was a courageous warrior and extremely loyal to the Mughal emperor. Aurangazeb gave him the name Qamaruddin. At the age of six he came to the court with his father and work awarded the title of "Munsab". The emperor took a special liking to the boy and predicted his future greatness. At the age of 20 he received the title "Chin Qalich Khan" from emperor Aurangazeb and was soon given the governorship of the Bijapur.

Nadir Shah's invasion of Delhi took place in 1738. It was Mir Qamaruddin who intervened and negotiated a successful truce. Impressed with the Nizam-ul-Mulk's ability, the Shah offered the empire of India to him. Mir Qzmzruddin refused, owing allegiance to the Emperor. Such was his loyalty.

Asif Jah passed away in 1948, at the ripe old age of 77. He is remembered as a resolute and able administrator, yet devoted to his family and friends. He laid the firm foundations of the Asif Jahi dynasty in the Deccan.

Nizam 2 : NIZAM ALI KHAN (1734-1803)
The fourth son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam Ali Khan was born on 24th February, 1734. He assumed the Subedari of the Deccan at the age of 28 years and ruled the Deccan for almost 42 years - The longest period among the Nizams. His reign was one of the most important chapters in the history of the Asaf Juhi dynasty. Among his efforts to consolidate the Nizam empire was the shift of the Deccan capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad. He ruled the Deccan at a most critical period. He protected the Deccan from the attack of the Marathas and Tippu Sultan of Mysore by signing a mutual protection treaty with the British.

After a reign that played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Nizam dynasty, Nizam Ali Khan died in 1803 at the age of 69. He was buried at the Mecca Masjid alongside the tomb of his mother Umda Begum.

Nizam 3 : MIR AKBAR ALI KHAN (1768-1829)
This Akbar Ali Khan Sikander Jah was born on 11th Nov 1768 .After the death of the Nizam Ali Khan he became the Subedar Jah was ratified by the emperor Shah Alam Khan and he also conferred all his father's titles on Sikander Jah.

Nizam 4 : MIR FARKUNDA ALI KHAN (1794-1857)
Mir Farkhanda Ali Khan Nusir-ud-Daulu was born in Bidar on 25 th April 1794. He was the eldest son of Sikander Jan and after his father's death he succeeded him on 23 rd may 1829.During the reign of his father a number of British officers were employed on several civil services. Hence on ascending the throne is 1829 one of the first ads of this highness was to request the Governor general ,Lord William Bentick to the European officers.

Nizam 5 : MIR TAHNIATH ALI KHAN (1827-1869)
Mir Tahniath Ali Khan Afzal-ud-daula was born on 11th October 1827 .He was teh eldest son of Nawab Nasir-ud-daula .He ascended the throne on 18th may 1857 and Indian mutiny was stated on 17th July 1857 Rohilas attacked the residency but Sir Salar Jung put down he attack with a firm hand. Similarly trouble was stated in Sholapur but the maharaja of Sholapur was unable to control transferred to the Nizam by the English yielding retained of Rs. 21 lakh per annum but Derar was retained in trust by the British for the purpose specified in the treaty of 1853.

Nizam 6 : MIR MAHBOOB ALI KHAN (1866-1911)
Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan was born on 17th August 186. He was the only son of Nawab Afzal-ud-Daula .When his father died he was two years and seven months old. He was installed as the Munsab by Sir Salar Jung the Great, Nawab Rasheeduddin Khan, Shar-ul-Ummul and the Resident, there functioned as the Reyab. Shar-ul-Ummul passed away on 12th Decemer,1881 and Salar Jung become the sole regent. He was remembered administrator and regent till his death.

Nizam 7 : MIR OSMAN ALI KHAN (1886-1967)
Mir Osman Ali Khan was born in Hyderabad on 5th April, 1886 at Purani Haveli. Since he was the heir-apparent, great attention was paid to his education, and eminent scholars were engaged to teach him English, Urdu, Persian. On 14th April, 1906 he was married to Dulhan Pasha Begum, daughter of Nawab Jahangir Jung, at Eden Bagh at the age 21.

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